July 24, 2024
Babak Aghel

Babak Aghel

Academic rank: Associate professor
Address: Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Energy, Kermanshah University of Technology (KUT), Imam Khomeini Highway, Kermanshah, Iran
Education: Ph.D in Chemical Engineering
Phone: 083-38305000 (1168)
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering


Modeling and prediction of water quality parameters using a hybrid particle swarm optimization–neural fuzzy approach
Type Article
Inorganic indicators, Water quality, Adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system, Particle swarm optimization, Modeling
Researchers Babak Aghel، Abbas Rezaei، Majid Mohadesi


This work focuses on the correlations among water quality parameters such as total hardness, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity and total alkalinity with water parameters pH, temperature and the sum of mill equivalents of cations and anions in water reservoir in Kermanshah province (located in the middle of the western part of Iran). The data of water quality of monitoring sites were collected over year 2015. To predict and simulate water quality parameters, two data-driven models, i.e., adaptive neural fuzzy inference system and a hybrid adaptive neural fuzzy inference system structure trained by particle swarm optimization technique, were used. The main advantages of these methods are their high accuracy and very fast computational speed to predict unknown data. The results indicated that implementation of two models is highly satisfactory for predicting inorganic indicators of water quality. However, the flexibility of particle swarm optimization–adaptive neural fuzzy inference system method in modeling is better than adaptive neural fuzzy inference system approach. To prove this, the correlation coefficient, mean absolute error, root mean square error and t statistics were calculated as the error criterion. The overall (training and testing) mean relative error percentage, mean absolute error, root mean square error, correlation coefficient and t statistics obtained by the proposed particle swarm optimization–adaptive neural fuzzy inference system model are less than 3.50, 11.60, 18.90, 0.95 and 0.38%, respectively. The results provide a useful approach that uses water parameters to estimate water quality in water reservoir for water treatment and pollution management.